Total Quality Management (TQM)

 

Using Mind Mapping Software

Use Total Quality Management with mind mapping for managing quality process in your company. Quality assurance through statistical methods is a key component in a manufacturing organization where TQM generally starts by sampling a random selection of the product. The sample can then tested for things that matter most to the end users. 

To build a TQM mind map, you should follow these steps:

  1. Select the sample products or it's part;
  2. Describe what static ways you are using to evaluate products' part; 
  3. Research and put into your map the reasons of the problem;

TQM Definitions 

As philosophy...

  • A business improvement philosophy which comprehensively and continuously involves all of an organization's functions in improvement activities. www.pdmamn.org/glossary.htm 
  • Total Quality Management is the management philosophy dedicating the entire organization to a relentless quality centered effort. It recognizes that involving everybody in maintaining and improving quality is a lot more efficient than paying a staff of quality control inspectors Trade Gap The difference between the value of exports and the value of imports of the country during a specified period of time. The gap may be either favourable or unfavourable. www.indiainfoline.com/bisc/jama/jmmt.html 
  • A management philosophy committed to a focus on continuous improvements of product and services with the involvement of the entire workforce. www.strategicsourcing.navy.mil/reference_documents/defs.cfm 

Origin...

  • A term initially coined by the Naval Air Systems Command to describe its Japanese style management approach to quality improvement. Since then, TQM has taken on many meanings. Simply put, it is a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction. TQM is based on the participation of all members of an organization in improving processes, products, services and the culture in which they work. The methods for implementing this approach are found in the teachings of such quality leaders as Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, Armand V. Feigenbaum, Kaoru Ishikawa and Joseph M. Juran.www.asq.org/info/glossary/t.html 

For product quality

  • A product-quality program in which the objective is complete elimination of product defects. http://services.eliteral.com/glossary/managerial-accounting-glossary.php 
  • comprehensive quality management, a general term and management principle that indicates means for long-term and sustained business excellence; "our way of succeeding with customer satisfaction", "making money in a sustained and balanced way both in the longer and shorter term". www.finnevo.fi/eng/contents/iso9000_terms.htm 
  • An approach to quality assurance that emphasizes a thorough understanding by all members of a production unit of the needs and desires of the ultimate service recipients, a viewpoint of wishing to provide service to internal, intermediate service recipients in the chain of service, and a knowledge of how to use specific data-related techniques to assess and improve the quality of their own and the team's outputs. www.qaproject.org/methods/resglossary.html 
  • A method of organizing a company with specific procedures, policies, and practices that commit it to continuous quality improvement in all its activities. www.cvm.uiuc.edu/safepork/gloss.html 
  • A methodology for continuous monitoring and incremental improvement of a supply-line process by identifying causes of variation and reducing them. Originated by Deming in the 1950's, and widely applied in the Federal government, where it was sometimes called Total Quality Leadership (TQL). www.balancedscorecard.org/basics/definitions.html 

Sharing goals...

  • Assuring that everyone in the organisation is responsible for quality. www.321site.com/greg/courses/mis1/glossary.htm 
  • The culture of an organisation where continuous improvement is integrated into all activities with the objective of improving the quality of all Business Processes. Total quality tools include process charts, pareto analysis, cause and effect diagrams, histograms, run diagrams, check sheets and statistical process control. www.bpic.co.uk/jargon.htm 

Measure system...

Management approach

Method

In 1984, the United States Department of the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center began researching the use of Statistical process control (SPC) and quality management methods for potential benefit in making performance improvements. This work included a detailed examination of the quality management approaches advocated by Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, and Joseph Juran.

The result was an approach that combined SPC principles with the philosophy of W. Edwards Deming. This approach was first tested at the North Island Naval Aviation Depot.

The name "Total Quality Management" (TQM) was first used by the Department of the Navy in 1985 when they were starting to introduce the methods that had been successful in the North Island test to other Naval installations.

TQM is considered a management strategy to embed awareness of quality in all organizational processes. TQM is not limited in its application and has been widely used in manufacturing, education, government, service industries, as well as NASA space and science programs.

Quality assurance through statistical methods is a key component in a manufacturing organization where TQM generally starts by sampling a random selection of the product. The sample can then tested for things that matter most to the end users. The causes of any failures are isolated, secondary measures of the production process are designed, and then the causes of the failure are corrected. The statistical distributions of important measurements are tracked. When parts' measures drift into the error band, the process is fixed. The error band is usually tighter than the failure band. The production process is thereby fixed before failing parts can be produced.

It's important to record not just the measurement ranges, but what failures caused them to be chosen. In that way, cheaper fixes can be substituted later, (say, when the product is redesigned), with no loss of quality. After TQM has been in use, it's very common for parts to be redesigned so that critical measurements either cease to exist, or become much wider.

It took people a while to develop tests to find emergent problems. One popular test is a "life test" in which the sample product is operated until a part fails. Another popular test is called "shake and bake". The product is mounted on a vibrator in an environmental oven, and operated at progressively more extreme vibration and temperatures until something fails. The failure is then isolated and engineers design an improvement.

A commonly-discovered failure is for the product to come apart. If fasteners fail, the improvements might be to use measured-tension nutdrivers to ensure that screws don't come off, or improved adhesives to ensure that parts remain glued.

If a gearbox wears out first, a typical engineering design improvement might be to substitute a brushless stepper motor for a DC motor with a gearbox. The improvement is that a stepper motor has no brushes or gears to wear out, so it lasts ten times or more longer. The stepper motor is more expensive than a DC motor, but cheaper than a DC motor combined with a gearbox. The electronics is radically different, but equally expensive. One disadvantage might be that a stepper motor can hum or whine, and usually needs noise-isolating mounts.

Often, a TQMed product is cheaper to produce because of efficiency/performance improvements and because there's no need to repair dead-on-arrival products, which represents an immensely more desirable product.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_Quality_Management